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Table of Contents

Diabetes-Type-2

Disclaimer: The content on this page is about Diabetes-Type 2. We will shortly update the content on Diabetes- MODY.

 

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, also known as Type 2 Diabetes, is a globally common metabolic disorder affecting over 77 million people in India. Once called adult-onset Diabetes (and also known as non-insulin-dependent Diabetes mellitus – NIDDM), Type 2 Diabetes is now also found in young adults and children.

Type 2 Diabetes Occurs when Diabetes controlling hormone is not used effectively by the body resulting in Diabetes controlling hormone resistance or Hyperglycemia. In advanced stages, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus may lead to damage to hormone producing cells leading to the deficiency. 

Following Pre-Diabetes or Metabolic Disorder, Type 2 Diabetes can potentially be avoided through diet and exercise. Such a diagnosis can be viewed as a useful, if urgent, wake up call. If resistance to hormone increases, people with Type 2 Diabetes may need to take oral anti-diabetic medications or take Diabetes controlling hormones to keep their blood sugar levels stable. 

Signs and Symptoms

  1. General Tiredness
  2. Mental Dullness
  3. Desire to Sit/sleep or lie down
  4. Excessive Frequency of Urine
  5. Excessive Mouth Dryness
  6. Burning Sensation in palm and soles
  7. Excessive water intake
  8. Desire for intake of Cold food items
  9. Bad Breath
  10. Fast growth of nails and hair
  11. Body Heaviness
  12. Sticky and Knotty hair
  13. Stickiness in eyes/ears/teeth etc.
  14. Looseness or flaccidity in the body
  15. Numbness in Palm-sole/Whole Body

Along with the presence of above signs and symptoms, the blood sugar levels: FBS 100 -125 mg/dl and HbA1C from 5.7%- 6.5% is a clear indication of PREDIABETES

Risk Factors

Type 2 Diabetes used to primarily be seen in middle-aged adults, and in contrast to Type 1 Diabetes which is usually diagnosed at a much earlier stage. However, in recent years much younger people have been diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes is becoming more common amongst adolescents and children. This increase has been connected to climbing levels of obesity.

A number of factors can increase the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes, which include:

  • Being overweight
  • Having a close family member with Type 2 Diabetes
  • Having high blood pressure
  • Having high cholesterol

Ayurveda Treatment

Ayurveda has 20 types of Type 2 Diabetes listed in Charaka Samhita, corresponding to Kapha (10 – Pre-Diabetes), Kapha-Pitta (6 – Early to Mature Diabetes) and Vata (4 – Diabetes with Complications). The texts also cover the following (list not exhaustive):

  1. Prodromal Signs & Symptoms up to Complications
  2. How to treat insulin resistance- cellular cleansing (autophage) through langhana (diet+exercise)
  3. Obesity and Diabetes- role of adiponectin, obesogenic factors
  4. Metabolism- Overload, Dysregulation, Dysbiosis
  5. Oxidative stress
  6. Cross Talk: Comorbidities
  7. Maternal Inheritance

Ayurveda approach also adequately covers the existence of complex disease pathways which can be unique, considering various variables (patient health, history, comorbidities, current symptoms) – hence encourages a whole person, systemic assessment to identify the right plan for care.This factor has been recently highlighted by multiple modern medicine journals such as “Painting a new picture of personalised medicine for Diabetes by Mark I. McCarthy, 2016”

“Kupitanam hi doshanam sharire paridhavatam | Yatra sanga kha vaigunyat vyadhi tatra upajayat”

The aggravated and the imbalanced doshas, by the virtue of aberrations of ahara (diet), vihara (lifestyle), agantuka hetu (external factors), manasika hetu or due to nidanaarthakara rogas (comorbidities) circulate in the body and lodge/accumulate in the weakest organ of the body and lead to disease.

The imbalance of doshas and the course they follow to cause disease is termed as samprapti or pathogenesis/disease pathway. Since diseases develop in distinct stages, a good knowledge of the stages helps in early diagnosis of disease in its early stage.

Ayurveda thus elaborates a six-stage process for diagnosis called Kriya (action) Kala (time). The first 4 stages are unique to Ayurveda in which they allow the physician to assess and diagnose before it advances to further stages and complications. Prediabetes is an intermediate form of dysglycemia on a spectrum ranging from normal to over diabetes. Ayurveda quotes following signs as the Premonitory signs of Prameha- initial stage of a disease before it manifests into subtypes and progresses to Madhumeha upadrava – complications of diabetes.

Prediabetes is an intermediate form of dysglycemia on a spectrum ranging from normal to overt diabetes. Ayurveda quotes following signs as the Premonitory signs of Prameha- initial stage of a disease before it manifests into subtypes and progresses to Madhumeha upadrava – complications of diabetes

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